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Bleeding during pregnancy - is there any reason to fear?

There is an old rule in gynecology, that any bleeding has to be understood as a possible abortion, until it is diagnosed what caused the bleeding. Bleeding is not a rare occurrence in the first trimester of pregnancy, therefore, does not necessarily mean that it is a serious problem. However, the bleeding that occurs in late pregnancy, or in the second and third trimester - it's usually a sign of more serious problems.

Past experience shows that one in five women (20 percent) experienced some form of weaker bleeding in early pregnancy. However, the fact is that in about half of pregnant women who have signs of bleeding does not happen spontaneous abortion.

When looking at the total number of pregnancies, every fifth or sixth is (15-20 percent) ended in miscarriage, for various reasons, in the first trimester of pregnancy. It should be noted that many early miscarriages are not recognized, but are interpreted as a delayed menstruation.

There are a number of medical terms that are related to spontaneous abortion. What's the difference?

When it comes to spontaneous abortions, they may be:

1)      Threatened miscarriage;

2)      Missed miscarriage;

3)      Inevitable miscarriage;

4)      Incomplete miscarriage and

5)      Complete miscarriage.

Threatened miscarriage occurs in 20-25% of pregnancies and is associated with an increased rate of fetal loss. Threatened abortion is clinical term used when a pregnant woman in first 20 weeks of pregnancy presents with spotting, contractions and mild abdominal pain, with a closed cervical os.

Missed miscarriage is a term used for a pregnancy lost in which the baby has stopped developing, and the pregnancy is no longer viable, but the women is not yet having clear abortion symptoms.

Inevitable miscarriage refers to the presence of an open internal cervical os in the presence of bleeding in the first trimester of pregnancy. Essentially, a threatened miscarriage progresses to an inevitable miscarriage if cervical dilatation occurs. Once tissue has passed through the cervical os, this will be then termed an incomplete miscarriage and ultimately a complete miscarriage.

Incomplete miscarriage is when the bleeding has begun and the cervix is dilated, but tissue from the pregnancy still remains in the uterus.

Completed miscarriage is when the embryo or products of conception have emptied out of the uterus. Bleeding should subside quickly, as should any pain or cramping.

Does early abortions are associated with low-quality pregnancy?

Absolutely, no matter how upsetting it looks. For a woman, it is, first of all, psycho-trauma. At first, the dominant feeling is loss of the baby, but when things settle down a bit, and when one considers that something was wrong with the pregnancy - then woman feel some relief. It is important to know that, apart from a small number of hereditary diseases, which can be repeated, the vast majority of abortions does not mean that the next pregnancy will be the same. Every pregnancy is for themselves and different from others.

Does the bleeding occurs in an ectopic pregnancy?

No matter that the pregnancy occurred somewhere outside the uterus - usually in the fallopian tube, can occur bleeding. Perhaps more important is the character of the contraction in the lower abdomen, which are stronger than in the period. With these contractions may occur a sharp pain, like a knife wound. Everything is accompanied by low values of beta HCG, with ultrasound diagnose that to the cavity of the uterus does not register echo embryos!

Statistically, one out of 4,000 pregnancies is ectopic. Women who had inflammation of the fallopian tubes, previous ectopic pregnancy, or some surgery in the pelvis are the risk category, for the development of this pregnancy.

Are there any special conditions or illnesses related to pregnancy when it can occur bleeding?

There are, though quite rare, a disease of the placenta called molar pregnancy .A molar pregnancy happens when tissue that normally becomes a fetus instead becomes an abnormal growth in your uterus. Even though it isn't an embryo, this growth triggers symptoms of pregnancy.  This leads to a much larger uterus than it would correspond to the expected size of the pregnancy. Also, bleeding may occur, which may be smaller or greater intensity. In addition, it is very important, the high values of beta HCG. Characteristic ultrasound, masterfully resolves the dilemma of the disorder of pregnancy.

What are the common causes of bleeding in first half of pregnancy?

Most of the pregnant woman observes that appeared pinkish discharge, six to twelve days after ovulation. This bleeding in the trail can take several hours or a few days. This phenomenon is the result of ingrowth of a fertilized egg in, prepared for it, the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) - which is enriched with a network swollen, and small blood vessels. Certain infections in the pelvis and the urinary tract can cause some bleeding.

Does intercourse can lead to bleeding?

After intercourse may also appear less bleeding because the cervix enlarged and fragile, so it is possible that sexual intercourse is the cause of this, though harmless, the bleeding may occur. In any case, while a gynecologist does not conduct an examination, is not recommended to continue practicing sexual relations, for preventative reasons. Otherwise, intercourse, when everything else is in order, cannot cause an abortion.

What are the common causes of bleeding in the second half of pregnancy?

The second half of pregnancy or pregnancy after the 20th week, has its own characteristics, and in terms of bleeding. Most often, bleeding, with low intensity may occur as contact bleeding. This happens because of the sensitivity of the cervix, which is affected by a minor infection, which is common in pregnancy.

Which bleeding can be dangerous and endanger the health of baby and mother?

There are conditions where there is a separation of the placenta from the inner layer of the uterus (abruptio placentae), which may be accompanied by vaginal bleeding. Abruption of the placenta experiences a small number of pregnant women, and this usually happens after the seventh month of pregnancy. In addition to bleeding, there is intense pain in the abdomen, while a pregnant woman falls into a state of shock, so that the hospital treatment urgently and without delay.

Pregnant women that belong to the group with an increased risk for this condition!

Those who have had birth already, older than 35, who previously had placenta abruption,  pregnant women with a special kind of anemia - when the red blood cells are sickle shaped, high blood pressure, after trauma or injury to the abdomen - usually caused by in traffic accidents, as well as in the use of cocaine.

Placenta abruption can occur and before contraction begins, and that happens in the last 12 weeks of pregnancy.

Does the incorrect position of the placenta may be the cause of bleeding?

Placenta previa occurs when the placenta partially or completely covers the inner part of the cervix. It occurs in every two hundredth pregnant and requires immediate hospitalization. Bleeding usually occurs without pain. Fortunately, with regular checkups and good ultrasound diagnosis is not difficult to establish the existence of improperly inserted placenta or placenta previa and to undertake all the necessary measures

Pregnant women that should especially take care about the position of the placenta!

Pregnant women who are at higher risk for placenta previa are those that have had children, who have had a caesarean section or an operation on the uterus, as well as those that have multiple pregnancy.

Does the bleeding can be a sign of preterm labor?

Vaginal bleeding can be a sign of labor. Otherwise, a few weeks before the expected delivery date may drop slimy bloody- cap, which indicates that is possible premature birth and requires immediate review gynecologist. So do not do anything on your own, but consult your doctor or emergency service, depending on the time of day when you notice bleeding from the vagina.